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How to Perform Ablution Based on Qur’an & Sunnah ?

vozoAs mentioned earlier, wudu is an act consisting of two stages (i) washing the face and hands; and (ii) wiping a part of the head and feet. This is clearly evident from the verse No. 6 of the suratu ‘1-Ma’idah:

“O you who believe! When you stand up for prayer, (i) wash your face and hands up to the elbows, (ii) and wipe a part of your head and your feet up to the ankles.” (5:6)

In this verse, two imperative forms have been used: (i) `faghsilu” which means “wash!”; and (ii)”wamsuhu”which means “wipe!”. It is obvious that the first imperative form (“wash!”) refers to the two objects which are “your face” (wujuhukum) and “your hands” (aydiyakum); while the second imperative form refers to a two objects which are “a part of your head” (by’ ru’usikum) and “your feet” (arjulakum).

The word “face” means the front portion of the head, comprising in man the surface be­tween top of the forehead and the bottom of the chin, and extending from ear to ear. In its legal definition, as ex­plained in theahadith of the Imams of Ahlu’1-bayt, it covers the surface of the face vertically from the hair-line to the bottom of the chin, and horizontally the parts which come within the reach of the span of the hand from the middle-finger to the thumb. (1)

The word “hand” means the organ especially adapted for grasping, and comprising the upper limb between the shoulder and the finger-tips. So we see that from the linguistic point of view, the word “yad“ is common between arm, fore-arm and hands.

When a word is commonly used in more than one mean­ing, it becomes necessary for the speaker to provide an associate (or a context) to specify the meaning. And thus we see the words “ila ‘1-marafiq up to the elbow” in the verse; these words were necessary to specify the part of the “hands“ which is to be included in wudu‘.

Now we come to one of the main differences among the Shi`ahs and the Sunnis in the manner of performingwudu‘. The Sunnis wash their fore-arm from the finger­tips up to the elbows, and the Shi`ahs wash their fore-arm from the elbows to the finger-tips. As mentioned above the words “up to the elbows“ do not tell us to wash from the finger-tips to the elbow or vice verse; these words are there just to specify the part of the “hands” which is to be included in wudu‘.

Then how should we wash our fore-arm-from the elbow or from the finger-tips? The answer of this problem is provided by the sunnah. One of the responsibilities of the Prophet was to explain the details of, and practically demonstrate how to follow, the laws explained in the Qur’an. And, indeed, the most authentic way of learning the Prophet’s method of performing wudu‘ is through the ahadith of the Imams of Ahlu ‘l-bayt (the family of the Prophet). Zurarah bin A’yun narrates the following hadith:
“Imam Muhammad al-Baqir (a.s.) said, `Shouldn’t I describe to you the wudu‘ of the Messenger of Allah?’ We said, `Yes.’ When the water was brought, the Imam washed his hands, then he uncovered his fore-arms. He dipped his right hand in the vessel ….then scooped it full with water and poured it on his fore-head …. He let the water drop on to the end of his beard and then he passed his hand on his face and fore-head once.

“Then he dipped his left hand (in the vessel), filled it up (with water), poured it on his right elbow and then passed his palm on the fore-arm until the water dripped to the finger-tips. Then he fully scooped (the water) with his right hand, pour it on his left elbow and then passed his palm on the fore-arm until the water dripped to the finger-tips.

“Then he wiped the front part of his head and the apparent side of his feet by the wetness of his left and right hands.” (2)

In another hadith Imam Muhammad al-Baqir (a.s.) narrates the same manner of performing wudu‘ which Arnim l-minin ‘Ali had demonstrated when a person inquired about the Prophet’s manner of performing wudu‘.(3)

The imperative “wamsahu = wipe” means to directly wipe the hands, etc, on something. When a word like “wamsahu“ is used alone in a transitive form it denotes comprehensiveness and totality of the act; e.g.““ “would mean “wipe all of your head.” But whenever this verb is followed by the letter “ba” it denotes partiality e.g ““ would mean “wipe a part of your head.” In the verse mentioned above ““ has been used with the letter “ba” and thus the correct translation would be “wipe a part of your head”.

Here again we come across another difference be­tween the Shi’ahs and the Sunnis. The Sunnis wipe all of their head whereas the Shi’ahs wipe only a part of their heads.

Which part of the head is to be wiped in wudu? The Qur’an is silent on this; the sunnah has explained it. Manyahadith from the Imams of Ahlu ‘l-bayt have explained that “a part of the head” is “the front part”.
(4)

The word “arjulakum“ means “feet, leg”. To specify its meaning, it was necessary to add the words “ila ‘ 1-ka `bayn up to the ankles”. The word “ar-julakum” is connected to “bi ru’usikum a part of your heads” by the coordinate conjunction “wa = and”. And thus the sentence would mean “wipe a part of your feet.”

Here again we come to two more differences among the Sunnis and the Shi`ahs. The Sunnis wash their wholefeet in wudu whereas the Shi`ahs wipe only the apparent side of their feet up to the ankles. As far as the Qur’an and the ahadith of the Ahlu ‘l-bayt are concerned, “wiping a part of your feet” is the only correct interpretation of the verse of wudu. And this interpretation has also been accepted by the famous Sunni scholar Imam Fakhru’d­ Din ar-Razi in his Tafsir al-Kabir. (5)

The only basis for the Sunnis’ point of view about “washing the feet” are some `ahadith‘ recorded in their books of tradition. These adadith cannot be accepted because:

Firstly, they are contrary to the injunction of the Qur’an. And the Prophet has said, “If a hadith is narrated to you from me, then put it before the Book of Allah. If it is according to the Book of Allah, then accept it; otherwise reject it.” (6)

Secondly, they are against the sunnah of the Prophet as explained by the Imam of the Ahlu ‘l-bayt who have been accepted as reliable by all the Muslims. Even some companions of the Prophet have clearly stated that it is wrong to ascribe the “washing of the feet” to the Prophet. For example, the famous companion Abdullah ibn `Abbas said, “Allah has enjoined two washings and two wipings (in wudu). Don’t you see that when Allah mentions the tayammum, He places two wipings in place of two washings (of face and hands) and leaves out the wipings (of head and feet).” (7)

Thirdly, the ahadith of the Sunnis in this matter are contradictory. Some ahadith mention “the washing of the feet” like those of Humran quoted by Imam al-Bukhari (8) and of Ibn `Asim quoted by Imam Muslim. While some other ahadith say that the Prophet “wiped his feet” like that of `Ibad bin Tamim which says that “I saw the Prophet performing the wudu, and he wiped his feet.” This last hadith has been recorded by Ta’rikh of al-Bukhari, Musnad of Ahmad ibn Hanbal, Sunan of Ibn Abi Shaybah, and Mu’jamu ‘1-Kabir of at-Tabarani; and all of its narrators are considered trustworthy. (9) And it is an accepted rule of the Principles of Islamic Jurisprudence (usulu’ 1fiqh) that if there are contradictory ahadith, then those which conform to the Qur’an are to be accepted and the others are to be rejected.

Thus, we can conclude that the correct manner of performing the wudu, according to the Qur’an and the authentic sunnah of the Prophet, is the manner which has been explained by the Imams of Ahlu ‘l-bayt .


1)Wasa’il, vol. 1, p. 283-6 sections 17-19 of the chapter on wudu.
2)Wasa’il, vol. 1, p. 272
3)Ibid.
4)Wasa’il, vol. 1, p. 289.
5)ar-Razi, Tafsir al-Kabir, vol. 3, p. 370.
6)Ibid, p. 371.
7)Muttaqi al-Hindi, Kanzu ‘1-‘Ummal, vol. 5, p. 103 (hadith no. 2213). Also see Musnad Ibn Hanbal, vol. 1, p. 108.
8)al-Bukhari, Sahih, vol. 1 (Beirut, Darul Arabia, n.d.) p. 113.
9)al-‘Asqalani, al-‘Isabah, vol. 1, p. 193; see also his Tahdhib at-Tahdhib.

Fifteen phrases About the Qur’an In the holy Qur’an

reading quranThe Qur’an says:

“O thou wrapped up in thy raiment! Keep vigil the night long, save a little — half of it, or a little less, or a little more, and recite the Qur’an in slow, measured tones. Soon shall we send down to thee a weighty Message. Truly, the vigil of the night is when impression is more keen and speech more certain.” (73:1-6)

“And most certainly you are made to receive the Qur’an from the presence of One Who is the Wise and the Knowing.” (27:6)

“But when Our Clear Signs are communicated unto them, those who rest not their hope on their meeting with Us, say: `Bring us a Qur’an other than this, or change it.’ Say: `It is not for me, of my own accord, to change it. I follow naught but what is revealed unto me. If I were to disobey my Lord, I should myself fear the Penalty of a Mighty Day.'”   (10:15)

“Verily, He Who ordained the Qur’an for thee, will bring thee back to the Place of Return. Say: `My Lord Knows best who it is that brings true guidance and who is in manifest error.'”   (28:85)

“When thou dost recite the Qur’an, We place between thee and those who do not believe in the Hereafter, a hidden barrier. And We put coverings on their hearts (and minds) and a heaviness in their ears lest they understand it. And when thou commemorate thy Lord – Him Alone – in the Qur’an, they turn their backs in aversion.”   (27:45-6)

“And those who disbelieve say: `Do not listen to this Qur’an and make noise therein, that you may gain the upper hand.'”   (41:26)

“We narrate unto thee the most beautiful of stories by Our revealing to thee this Qur’an. Before this, thou too were certainly among those who did not know.”   (12:3)

“We have explained in detail in this Qur’an, for the benefit of humankind, every kind of similitude. But humankind is, in most things, contentious.   (18:54)

“Certainly, this Qur’an doth explain to the Children of Israel most of that concerning which they differ.” (27:76)

“And those who disbelieve say: We believe not in this Qur’an nor in that which was before it; but oh, if thou couldst see, when the wrong-doers are brought up before their Lord,

how they cast the blame one to another; how those who were weak say unto those who were proud: But for you, we should have been believers.” (34:31)

“Those who were proud shall say unto those who were deemed weak: `did we turn you away from guidance after it reached you? Nay! You (yourselves) were guilty.'” (34:32)

“Those reckoned weak shall say to the aggressors: `Nay! It was a plot by night and by day when you told us to disbelieve in Allah and to set up equals to Him.’ They will declare repentance when they see the punishment. We shall put yokes on the necks of the unbelievers. It would only be a requital for their (ill) deeds.”   (34:33)

“Do they not then earnestly seek to understand the Qur’an? Or are there locks on their hearts (and minds)?”   (47:24)

“Verily, this Qur’an doth guide to that which is most upright (or stable), and gives glad tidings to the believers who perform deeds of righteousness, that they shall have a magnificent reward.”   (17:9)

“And when the Qur’an is recited, then listen to it and remain silent, that you may receive mercy.” (7:204)

“That this is indeed a noble Qur’an, in a Book well-guarded, which none shall touch but those who are clean, a revelation from the Lord of the Worlds.” (56:77-80)

Why does Holy Quran talk to men not women?

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Question:

Why does Holy Quran talk to men not women?

Answer:
The Lord Most Gracious did not send a separate Quran for men and a separate Quran for women, but rather send His Book of Guidance for all mankind! Thus, more often than not the Quran addresses mankind, both men and women, or believers and disbelievers, both men and women, in general.
Having said that The Lord Most High has addressed mankind in general, there are several instances where Allah addresses a specific woman or group of women…….just as He addresses a specific man or a group of men!
Here are only a few examples:

Allah Says in the Holy Quran Chapter 33 Surah Ahzaab Verse 30:

O Wives of the Prophet! If any of you were guilty of evident unseemly conduct the Punishment would be doubled to you and that is easy for Allah.

Allah Says in th Holy Quran Chapter 33 Surah Ahzaab Verse 32:

O Wives of the Prophet! Ye are not like any of the (other) women: if ye do fear (Allah) be not too complaisant of speech least one in whose heart is a disease should be moved with desire: but speak ye a speech (that is) just.

Allah Says in the Holy Quran Chapter 3 Surah Ale Imran Verse 42:

Behold! The angels said: “O Mary! Allah hath chosen thee and purified thee; chosen thee above the women of all nations.

Allah Says in the Holy Quran Chapter 3 Surah Ale Imran Verse 45:

Behold! The Angels said “O Mary! Allah gives thee glad tidings of a Word from Him: his name will be Christ Jesus the son of Mary held in honor in this world and the Hereafter and of (the company of) those nearest to Allah.

Allah Says in the Holy Quran Chapter 19 Surah Maryam Verse 27:

At length she (Mary) brought the (babe Jesus) to her people carrying him (in her arms). They said: “O Mary! Truly an amazing thing hast thou brought!

Allah Says in the Holy Quran Chapter 3 Ale Imran Verse 43:

O Mary! Worship thy Lord devoutly; prostrate thyself and bow down (in prayer) with those who bow down.

Allah Says in the Holy Quran Chapter 28 Surah Qasas Verse 7:

So we sent this inspiration to the mother of Moses: “Suckle (thy child) but when thou hast fears about him cast him into the river but fear not nor grieve: for We shall restore him to thee and We shall make him one of Our Messengers.”

Allah Says in the Holy Quran Chapter 33 Surah Ahzaab Verse 35:

For Muslim men and women for believing men and women for devout men and women for true men and women for men and women who are patient and constant for men and women who humble themselves for men and women who give in charity for men and women who fast (and deny themselves) for men and women who guard their chastity and for men and women who engage much in Allah’s praise for them has Allah prepared forgiveness and great reward.

Allah Says in the Holy Quran Chapter 33 Surah Ahzaab Verse 36:

It is not fitting for a believing man or believing woman when a matter has been decided by Allah and His Messenger to have any option about their decision: if anyone disobeys Allah and His Messenger they are indeed on a clearly Wrong Path.

Hidden Truths in God’s Word – eBook

Godsword2

In this book, the author has discussed in detail some of the terms and verses of the Qur’an which he feels need to be analyzed deeply. He takes an unorthodox approach to understanding these terms and explains the reasons for his conclusions.
[divider]

[box type=”note” align=”aligncenter” width=”300px” ]Name: Hidden Truths in God’s Word
Author: Sayyid Mujtaba Musawi Lari
Translated By: Abbas Jaffer[/box]

[button color=”green” size=”medium” link=”http://www.byislam.com/en/wp-content/uploads/2015/04/Hidden-Truths-in-Gods-Word-byislam.com_.pdf” target=”blank” ]Download “Hidden Truths in God’s Word” – PDF[/button]

Has the Quran mentioned anything about the date of the birth of the prophet of Islam? part 2

history-of-prophet-of-islam

[button color=”green” size=”medium” link=”http://www.byislam.com/en/wp-content/uploads/2015/04/Has-the-Quran-mentioned-anything-about-the-date-of-the-birth-of-the-prophet-of-Islam.mp3″ ]Download MP3 file[/button]

How is the Qur`an a miracle?

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In connection with the greatness of the Noble Qur`an, we begin by quoting a few statements from some of the renowned personalities and also from those individuals, who have been accused of standing up to combat the Qur`an.

1. ‘Abu al-‘Ala Mu’arri (accused of attempting to challenge the Qur`an) says: “It is a matter of consensus amongst all the people – Muslims and non-Muslims alike – that the book that Muhammad (a.s) has brought, has subjugated the intellects and till today, no one has been able to bring forth the like of it. The style of this book does not tally with any of the styles that have been prevalent amongst the Arabs, such as oratory, ‘rajaz’3 poetry, rhymed prose of the clergy etc.
The superiority and the attraction of this book is of such high calibre that if one verse from it is placed amongst the words of others, it would shine out like a radiant star in a pitch-black night!”

2. Walid b. Mughairah al-Makhzumi – He was well known for his prudence and good management amongst the Arabs who used to benefit from his acumen and managerial skills to solve their social problems in the Pre-Islamic era. It was for this reason that he was called:

رَيْحاَنَةُ قُرَيْشٍ.

“…the crème de la crème of the Quraish.”

When he heard the first few verses of Suratul Ghafir from the Noble Prophet (s.a.w) he appeared in a gathering of the tribe of Bani Makhzum and said: “By Allah!  I have heard a speech from Muhammad, which resembles neither the speech of humans nor that of the fairies.”

وَ إِنَّ لَهُ لَحَلاَوَةً وَ إِنَّ عَلَيْهِ لَطَلاَوَةً وَ إِنَّ أَعْلاَهُ لَمُثْمِرٌ وَ إِنَّ أَسْفَلَهُ لَمُغْدِقٌ وَ إِنَّهُ لَيَعْلُو وَ لاَ يُعْلَى‏.

“His speech possesses a special sweetness and an exceptional beauty. The top of it (like the fruitful branches of a tree) is full of fruits and the bottom of it is (like the roots of an ancient tree) firm and strong. It is a speech that shall prevail over everything and none shall prevail over it.”4

3. Thomas Carlyle, the renowned historian, in respect of the Qur`an says: “If we cast one look at this holy book, we observe that salient realities and characteristics of the secrets of existence have been so nurtured in its contents that its greatness and truthfulness becomes plainly manifest – and this is a great distinction, which is specific only to the Qur`an and not seen in any other scientific, political or financial work.

Yes, some of the books do tend to deeply affect the mind of the reader – however, this just cannot be compared to the influence and effect of the Qur`an. As such, it must be said:  “The fundamental distinction of the Qur`an and its basic tenets lies in its truthfulness, pure sentiments, salient topics and the important themes – none of which provide room for any kind of scepticism and uncertainty – and in the fact that it encompasses all the virtues and excellences that bring about human perfection and happiness, and very clearly defines and illustrates them all.”5

4. John Davenport – the author of the book, An Apology for Mohammad and the Koran, writes: “So exempt, indeed, is the Koran from these undeniable defects, that it needs not the slightest castigation, and may be read, from beginning to end, without causing a blush to suffuse the cheek of modesty itself.”6

He also says: “It is universally allowed to be written with the utmost purity and elegance of language in the dialect of the tribe of the Koreish, the most Noble and polite of all the Arabs, but with some mixture, although very rarely, of other dialects. It is, confessedly, the standard of the Arabian Language, and abounds with splendid imagery and the boldest metaphors … and is generally vigorous and sublime.”7

5. Goethe, the German scholar and poet says: “The Koran is a work with whose dullness the reader is at first disgusted, afterwards attracted by its charms, and finally irresistibly ravished by its many beauties.”8

On another occasion, he writes: “For years on end priests, lacking cognizance of Allah, had held us back from comprehending the realities of the Noble Qur`an and the greatness of the person who had brought it – Muhammad (s.a.w) – yet, as we have treaded the path of knowledge and science, curtains of ignorance and baseless prejudice moved aside from before us and very soon this indescribable book (Qur`an) attracted the world towards itself – profoundly influencing the knowledge and science of the world – eventually becoming the pivot of thoughts and ideas of the people of the world!”

He also says: “Initially we had turned away from the Qur`an but it was not long before this book attracted our attention towards itself leaving us baffled and amazed in a measure that compelled us to bow our heads in submission before its lofty and scientific laws!”

6. Will Durant – the famous historian says: “The Qur`an has generated within the Muslims such self-esteem, justice and piety that the like of it has not been witnessed in any region of the world.”

7. Jules La Beaume – the French thinker and writer, in his book An Explanation of the Signs, states: “The people of the world came to acquire science and knowledge from the Muslims, who acquired them from the Qur`an, which is an ocean of knowledge, and caused streams (of knowledge) to flow from it in the world, for mankind…”

8. Another orientalist, writes: “It is mandatory for us to acknowledge that natural, astronomical, philosophical, mathematical sciences, which have seen a boom in Europe, are mainly due to the blessings of the Qur`anic teachings and as such, we are indebted to the Muslims – in fact, Europe, in this regard, is one of the cities of Islam.”

9. Doctor Laura Veccia Vaglieri – a professor in the University of Naples – in her book The Rapid Growth of Islam, writes: “The divine book of Islam is one example of a miracle. It (Qur`an) is a book, which cannot be imitated. The style and modes of the Qur`an do not have any literary precedent. The influence that this style has upon the soul of man is a result of the distinctions and excellences that it possesses. How can this miraculous book be a work of Muhammad (s.a.w), who had been an unschooled Arab?

In this book we observe treasures and reservoirs of knowledge which is beyond the ability and capacity of the most intelligent individuals, greatest philosophers and strongest political and legal personalities. And it is because of these aspects that the Qur`an just cannot be the work of an educated or a learned person.”910

One of the things which proves the authenticity of the Qur`an and its revelation by Allah is the fact that there is no contradiction or discrepancy in the entire Qur`an. To understand this reality, consider the following explanation: The mentality of man is constantly in a state of change. The Law of Development – under normal circumstances – envelopes man, his thoughts and mentality, and with the passage of time, tends to change his ideas and speech.

If we reflect carefully, we shall observe that the works of a writer are never similar and uniform; even in one book, the start and the end are seen to possess variations – especially so if a person finds himself in the midst of great and important events – events, which would establish the foundations of an all-encompassing ideological, social and doctrinal revolution. Such a person, however much he may try to maintain uniformity in his works, would never be successful – especially if he is unschooled and fostered in an environment that is totally backward and undeveloped.

However, the Qur`an, which has been revealed over a period of 23 years under various conditions, in various environments and in accordance with the corrective and educative needs of man, is a book which deals with a variety of topics. It is unlike other ordinary books that confine themselves to just one topic like politics, society, philosophy, law or history; rather, it is a book that, at times, talks about Unity and the mysteries of creation, at other times about decrees, laws, customs and etiquettes, and on occasions about the past nations and their shocking histories, and about advices, admonitions, worship and man’s relation with Allah – and as Doctor Gustav Lebon puts it: “Qur`an, the divine book of the Muslims is not restricted to religious teachings only but also contains political and social rulings for the Muslims.

A book possessing such features would normally not be free of contradictions and discrepancies. However, when we witness that despite these aspects all its verses are in complete harmony with each other and without the slightest discrepancy, contradiction or asymmetry, we can safely surmise that this book is not a product of human thoughts, rather it is a book that has been sent down by Allah, a fact which has been emphasized by the Qur`an itself.”111213

Verses 12 to 14 of Suratul Hud once again stress the miraculous nature of the Qur`an and declare that this is not an ordinary speech and also not a consequence of human thoughts; it is a divine Revelation, which finds its origin in the Infinite Knowledge and Power of Allah. For this reason it puts forth a challenge and dares the entire world to pick up the gauntlet and step forward to combat it (by bringing the like of it). In view of the fact that the contemporaries of the Noble Prophet (s.a.w) and all the communities that have existed, till today, have failed to stand up before this challenge – expressing their willingness to face every other difficulty in trying to put Islam down but shying away from endeavouring to combat the Qur`an by bringing the like of it – it is plainly evident that basically such a task was – and is – beyond the ability of man. And is miracle something other than this?

Even today, this call of the Qur`an still rings in our ears and this eternal miracle still invites the entire world towards itself, challenging all the knowledgeable and scientific circles to combat it, not only with regards to eloquence – beauty and attractiveness of speech – but also with respect to its contents –  sciences which, in that period, had been hidden from man; laws and rulings that guarantee prosperity and deliverance for the human species; statements and explanations that are free from contradictions, discrepancies and prevarications; historical accounts that are free from myths, exaggeration and idle talks – and the like.14

Sayyid Qutb, in his commentary, In the Light of the Qur`an, has reported that some materialists, who had presented themselves at a convention of orientalists in Russia in 1954, in a bid to fault the Qur`an, said: “This book cannot be the outcome of the thoughts and ideas of one man – Muhammad – but it must be the result of the efforts of a large group of individuals!  Moreover, it also cannot be believed that all of it had been written in the Arabian Peninsula, rather, it is certain that parts of it have been written outside it!”15

They found themselves helpless – since they, on the one hand, on the basis of their reasoning which revolved around the rejection of the existence of Allah and Revelation, always sought a material explanation for every thing, whilst on the other hand were unable to accept the Qur`an to be the product of the thoughts of an individual within the Arabian Peninsula – they had no other option except to come up with this ridiculous theory of ascribing it to a group of individuals from within and outside the Peninsula – a notion which history rejects entirely.1

Has the Qur`an been altered?

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The popular opinion amongst the Shi’ite and Sunni scholars is that no alteration has taken place in the Qur`an, and the Qur`an that is in our hands today is the very same Qur`an that had been revealed to the Noble Prophet (s.a.w) – to the extent that not even a single letter or a word has been added to it or deleted from it.

Some distinguished Shi’ite scholars – ancient and recent – who have explicitly attested to this reality, are:

1. Sheikh Tusi, renowned as Sheikh al-Taifah, who has presented a lucid, explicit and conclusive discussion on this matter at the beginning of his famed commentary, al-Tibyan.

2. Sayyid Murtaza, one of the most celebrated 4th century (Hijri) scholars of the Twelve-Imam sect.

3. The Chief of the Traditionists, Muhammad b. ‘Ali b. Babwaih al-saduq, while mentioning the beliefs of the Twelve-Imam sect, states: “Our belief is that no alteration has taken place in the Noble Qur`an.”

4. The distinguished commentator al-Tabrisi too, in the introduction of his commentary, has presented a vocal discussion in connection with this issue.

5. Kashif al-Ghita, one of the eminent later-generation scholars.

6. Muhaqqiq Yazdi, in his book al-‘Urwatul Wuthqa, has reported the opinions of a great number of Shi’ite jurists regarding non-alteration of the Qur`an.

7. It has been reported that numerous other great scholars like Sheikh Mufid, Sheikh Baha`i, Qadhi Nurullah and other Shi’ite scholars also harboured this belief and opinion.

Preponderantly, great and celebrated Sunni scholars too hold this belief.

It should be pointed out that some Shi’ite and Sunni scholars of Hadith, whose knowledge with respect to the Noble Qur`an was deficient, have reported the occurrence of alteration in the Qur`an. Nevertheless, by means of explanations on the part of great scholars of both the sects, this false belief has been discarded.

Sayyid Murtazha, replying to the book al-Masail al-Tarablasiyat, says: “The veracity of the Qur`an is so evident that (the certainty of) it is similar to (the certainty of) the knowledge that we possess with respect to the well-known cities of the world, great historical events and popular books.”

In the aforesaid example, can a person ever harbour doubts about the existence of cities like Makkah, Madinah, London or Paris, even though he may have never travelled to these cities?  Can one ever deny the Mongol invasion of Iran, or the French Revolution, or for that matter World Wars I and II?

Why can one not deny the above?  It is because all these have reached us as a result of successive transmissions and narrations. Similarly the case is similar with the verses of the Noble Qur`an and we shall discuss this topic further a little later.

If biased individuals have attributed this belief to the Shi’ites with the intention of sowing discord amongst the Shi’ites and Ahlus Sunnah, the books of great and celebrated Shi’ite scholars are sufficient to prove false their claims.

It is not strange that a person like Fakhr Razi, who is known to us as a person displaying a particular bias and partiality with issues relating to the Shi’ites, under the discussion pertaining to verse 9 of Suratul Hijr, says:

اِنَّا نَحْنُ نَزَّلْناَ الذِّكْرَ وَ اِنَّا لَهُ لَحَافِظُوْن

“Surely, We have sent down the Reminder (the Qur`an) and surely, We (Ourselves) shall be its Guardian”

is evidence to prove false the claims of the Shi’ites that there has occurred alteration and addition and deletion in the Noble Qur`an!

It ought to be expressly stated that if his allusion is towards the great and renowned Shi’ite scholars and researchers, then it should be known that none of them have ever possessed such a belief and opinion; and if his allusion is towards a weak and an unauthentic view existing amongst the Shi’ites, a similar view is prevalent amongst the Ahlus Sunnah too – one, which is neither recognized by them nor by us.

The renowned researcher Kashif al-Ghita in his book Kashf al-Ghita declares:

لاَ رَيْبَ اَنَّهُ (اَيِ الْقُرْآن) مَحْفُوْظٌ مِنَ النُّقْصَانِ بِحِفْظِ الْمَلِكِ الدَّيَّانِ كَماَ دَلَّ عَلَيْهِ صَرِيْحُ الْقُرْآنِ وَ إِجْماَعُ الْعُلَماَءِ فِي كُلِّ زَماَنٍ وَ لاَ عِبْرَةَ بِناَدِرٍ.

“There is no doubt that the Qur`an has been protected from any reduction (and alteration) as a result of Allah’s protection – as is indicated by the explicit statements of the Qur`an and the consensus of the scholars in every era; and any opposition (to this belief) by a handful of individuals carried no significance and authenticity.”1

The history of Islam has seen numerous such inappropriate attributions, which only originate as a result of prejudice. We do know that the cause of some of these misunderstandings have been due to the enemies, who used to create such issues in an effort to ensure that no unity is established within the ranks of the Muslims.

The state of affairs reached such a stage that the renowned author from the Hijaz, ‘Abdullah ‘Ali al-Qasimi, in his book al-Sira’, while criticizing the Shi’ites, says:

الشيعة هم أبدا أعداء المساجد و لـهذا يقل أن يشاهد الضارب في طول بلادهم و غرضها مسجدا.

“The Shi’ites have always been the enemies of mosques and for that reason if a person were to travel the length and breadth of Shi’ite cities, he would come across very few mosques!”

Reflect hard! For here in the Shi’ite inhabited cities we tire ourselves counting the mosques which are found in the streets, bazaars, lanes and even by-lanes and at times there are so many mosques in one place that some people clamour out: Enough!  Let us focus on other things too. Despite this we find this renowned author asserting things, which, for those of us residing in these regions, only serve to evoke laughter, and so what Fakhr Razi has ascribed to us should not cause too great an astonishment.